IP rating for electrical appliances
The protection level of waterproof outlets is determined by the “IP” marking. The higher the digital value, the more reliable the device. So, models of class “IPX1” protect only from small splashes, and “IPX4”. are not afraid even of direct hit of water jets.
Step # 2. wiring the terminal block
Decorative elements are removed from the socket housing, leaving only the terminal block. At the terminals, the fastening bolts are loosened, with the help of which the bare ends of the supplied wires will be fixed.
The ends of the electrical cable are cleaned from the braid using a cross-cutting knife or side cutter, directing them in the opposite direction to the movement of the tool
For ease of connection, the insulation of the lead wires is made in different colors. The grounding wire is painted in a green-yellow braid, the phase wire is represented by a red or brown sheath, and the neutral one is in blue or blue insulation.
The ends of the wires taken out of the plastic “glass” are brought to the contacts and inserted into the terminals. The phase and neutral wires are connected to the current-carrying terminals: phase on the right, neutral on the left. The grounding conductor is connected to the terminal marked with the abbreviation “PE”.
The grounding conductor is connected to the upper or central terminal equipped with “antennae” fixed to the device body
In no case connect the “zero” to the grounding terminal. Otherwise, if the working “zero” in the shield burns out, the reverse “phase” will break through on the body of the machine connected to the mains.
The socket housing with the connected contacts is fixed to the socket with screws or spacer lugs. After fixing the block, check the quality of the connection of the contacts and the tightening of the bolts on the terminal blocks.
At the final stage, a decorative cover is installed.
Connecting the socket, key conditions
The projects of old houses did not provide for the connection of an outlet in the bathroom for two main reasons:
- first. the objects of the old housing stock are not provided with a grounding system
- the second. in those days there was no powerful stationary household appliances
Household appliances used two to three decades ago did not involve stationary installation in bathrooms, due to their characteristic high level of humidity.
The current norms and standards allow placing connection points in rooms with high humidity, but subject to a number of mandatory rules:
- The socket is connected only to serviceable wiring made of a three-core copper cable
- Electrical sockets are used for installation, the cases of which are distinguished by reliable protection against moisture ingress
- The electrical equipment is equipped with a residual current device with an operating current within 10 mA
- The power line must be equipped with an earthing loop so that a powerful device is connected through a protective contact
Grounding is a strict condition for installing an outlet both in a separate bathroom and in a combined bathroom, in which there is excess moisture. In residential buildings, in which grounding is not provided, a protective transformer and an RCD cope with the task of extinguishing the overcurrents and disconnecting the line. The only thing is that their level of protection will be slightly lower.
Some owners are irresponsible in connecting powerful household appliances, using extension cords and tees for this.
It is not worth connecting a washing machine, which is one of the powerful household electrical appliances, through an extension cord. This is inconvenient and also dangerous. Indeed, with illiterate connection and installation, the likelihood of an emergency increases, as a result of which even high-quality expensive equipment breaks down prematurely.
If there is an inquisitive little fidget in the family, then the presence of extra wires in the public domain takes on special features.
Connecting the socket
Never connect a “zero” to the grounding terminal. Otherwise, if the working “zero” in the shield burns out, the reverse “phase” will break through on the body of the machine connected to the network.
The socket housing with the connected contacts is fixed to the socket with screws or spacer lugs. After fixing the block, check the quality of the connection of the contacts and the tightening of the bolts on the terminal blocks. At the final stage, a decorative cover is installed.
Electrical work is classified as hazARDOus. And they should be done with the utmost care. Therefore, if you are not able to correctly assess the situation and are not confident in your own abilities, you should not experiment. It is better to entrust the solution of this difficult task to professionals.
Power and cable cross-section
The power of most modern washing machines varies from 2 to 2.5 kW. These data are specified in the documentation for the device. Knowing the power, determine the required cross-section of the supply wires.
Attention. To power the washing machine, lay a copper three-core cable (phase, zero, earth).
Most often, in apartments for a washing machine, a wire cross-section of 2.5 square meters is used. m. Such a section will allow, in addition to the washing machine, to connect a hairdryer, an electric shaver and other small appliances to the same outlet. Accordingly, to protect this outlet line, use a circuit breaker with a rated current of 16 (A), characteristic C and an RCD of 25 (A), 30 (mA).
Connecting a socket for a washing machine
When planning to connect a washing machine in the bathroom of a house that is over 20 years old, first of all carefully examine the wiring. Most likely, there are aluminum wires. They cannot be used to connect powerful appliances, including the washing machine. Since the conductivity of the aluminum core is almost two times lower than the copper one, and when oxides appear on the surface, the value still decreases.
Be prepared that replacing outdated aluminum wiring with a copper analog will cost a pretty penny. But the safety of households and the normal operation of equipment directly depend on it.
Some owners in the bathroom install one connection point for all electrical appliances. To do this, lay a wire with a cross section of 2.5 mm, to which a daisy chain is connected to a block of sockets used to power not only the washing machine, but also other electrical appliances. Experienced craftsmen do not recommend doing this, but they still advise to lay a separate wire to the washing machine.
At the time of installation of the outlet, an automatic machine and an RCD should already be in the electrical panel, and the wire itself should be brought out to the bathroom. Before proceeding with the installation of the connection point, make sure that the wire is not energized by touching the cable ends stripped from the braid with an indicator screwdriver.
A socket box is mounted in a prepared place. The choice of a socket box depends on the type of wall. For installation in concrete, mounting blocks are used without any fixing elements. For drywall. plastic cups equipped with pressure plates for the possibility of fixing on the back of the sheet.
The installed socket box will hide the terminal block for connections with electrical wiring hidden in the wall.
Basic parameters of safe wiring
Bathroom wiring must not only function flawlessly but also be safe.
In case of current leakage to the casing of the generating set, at the moment of a short circuit or when touched by a part of the body
In old buildings erected several decades ago, wires with aluminum conductors were mainly used. They are not suitable for connecting modern powerful equipment.
The washing machine may only be connected via a three-core copper cable.
You may also find useful information about what types of wires are used to install electrical networks in an apartment.
To safely install a connection point for a powerful household unit, a separate power line should be laid from the apartment panel and provided with protection devices for the wiring and the equipment itself
According to clause 7.1.40 of the current PUE, it is recommended to install the wiring in a closed way in rooms with high humidity.
To do this, the cable coming from the distribution board is placed in the strobe selected in the wall so that it is hidden and does not even partially come out to the surface.
This protects the cable from direct contact with water, which is known for its excellent conductive properties.
For the same reason, when laying in a channel hollowed out in wood, for example, it is not allowed to place an electric wire in a metal hose or in a cavity of a steel pipe.
The wire must not be fixed with metal brackets without rubber gaskets. The mounting brackets themselves must be anti-corrosion coated.
In order for the wiring to withstand the high load from a powerful household unit, you should correctly calculate the cable cross-section.
It is determined according to the same principle as when installing any other electrical engineering, taking into account the expected load. The power of the washing machine is indicated in the instructions attached to it.
To connect household appliances in the bathroom, use a cable made of three copper conductors, one of which is connected to ground
For laying the power line, only a continuous wire free from defects is used. All joints are carefully wrapped with electrical insulating self-adhesive tape.
The presence in the bathroom and junction boxes is not allowed, inside the hollow case of which the cables of the connected devices are connected according to the scheme. Junction boxes are always placed outside the bathroom.
Procedure for determining the cable cross-section:
- Find out the power of the connected electrical appliance. In most cases, it does not exceed 3 kW.
- In accordance with the reference tables, the cable cross-section is selected.
When connecting a block of sockets, the total power of the devices “powered” from them is determined, after which, guided by the same reference tables, the permissible cable section is determined.
Even if the machine consumes less energy, experienced craftsmen recommend making a power reserve. After all, it is possible that over time, a morally obsolete unit can be replaced with more high-power new equipment.
To connect a washing machine, the power of which does not exceed 3 kW, a three-core copper cable with a cross section of 2.5 mm is mainly used
It is recommended to use only copper wire for connection. In comparison with the aluminum “brother”, it is preferable because it has better electrically conductive properties.
Copper wire is capable of withstanding high voltage with a smaller cross-section: for 1 mm of cross-section, 2 kW of load. That is why the wire laid in the strobe will take up half the space. In addition, it is resistant to oxidation and, according to electricians, has a service life of over 30 years.
The cable leading a separate line to the bathroom is connected to the in-house switchboard through an emergency shutdown device (RCD).
The main purpose of the RCD is to protect electrical appliances “powered” from the network from short circuits, and households from the risk of electric shock
The leakage current of the protective device for connecting lines when fast protection is needed should be 10mA. This is due to the fact that the bathroom is characterized by high humidity, and therefore the room is one of the rooms of increased danger.
A person feels the irritating effect of alternating current already at a value of 5-7 mA.
If the bathroom is “powered” by a group line, the maximum leakage current for connecting the wiring must be 30 mA. Such devices are cheaper than 10 mA, but they also do not fire as quickly.
The device is triggered by an overload of 10 mA, preventing the failure of the units connected to the mains and the outbreak of fire as a result of a short circuit
For the installation of private houses and apartments, models are most often used, combined with a circuit breaker for wiring protection. differential switches.
You may also have information about the differences between an RCD and a difavtomat, discussed in our other article.
Modular devices provide protection along three “edges”: from overloading the power supply, from exceeding the permissible leakage current and from a short circuit on the line.
Some manufacturers produce sockets that are already equipped with a protective RCD, although the price for them is much higher than for stationary models
In the absence of a stationary RCD in the apartment in the switchboard, a portable RCD is used. They are connected to an existing outlet, and then the electrical equipment is connected.
But an RCD in itself is not a complete protection. To protect the wiring and the unit itself from a short circuit, a separate circuit breaker is installed.
The residual current circuit breaker is selected based on the cross-section of the cable laid to the outlet and the load of the electrical network
Traditionally, a 16A machine is used. In any case, the rating of the operating current of the RCD must be one category higher than the rated current of the input machine.
Step # 1. laying the cable and installing the socket
To perform hidden wiring in the wall cavity, using a perforator, a strobe is made. It is laid along the shortest path under the ceiling parallel to the floor surface.
To the outlet, the line is lowered strictly down perpendicularly. The wiring is fixed in the grooves using dowel clamps.
To outline the location of the outlet, the device body is applied to the center of the laid strip. Use a marker to make marks for drilling the hole. Having marked the point of placement of the socket, using a punch equipped with a crown D 68 mm, make a hole in the wall.
With the help of a hollow drill, you can quickly and economically make a large hole in the wall for the installation of a standard mounting size socket
The walls of the hole made are cleaned of dust residues and crushed wall elements. A socket box is mounted in the prepared seat.
The choice of a socket box depends on the type of wall. For installation in concrete, mounting blocks are used without any fixing elements. For drywall. plastic cups equipped with pressure plates for the possibility of fixing on the back of the sheet. You can read more about the technology of mounting the socket box in another article.
Having fixed the socket in the wall using the presser feet, or by applying a putty or alabaster solution to the surface, clean the inner cavity of the box and remove the wire
The installed socket box will hide the terminal block for connections with electrical wiring hidden in the wall.
RCD and difavtomat
Today, the electrical appliance market can provide a wide selection of a wide variety of machines. In fact, the classic RCD has long been outdated and cannot protect the wiring from all types of accidents. To ensure high-class protection, experts recommend paying attention to a device such as a difavtomat.
Difavtomat is an innovative device that combines the functions of a residual current device and a fire switch.
In the past, to ensure complete protection of the wires, these devices had to be installed in series, one after the other. The difavtomat has combined all their functions in one ergonomic body. The only drawback of this device is the high price, which significantly hits the budget. When choosing and installing a difavtomat, you need to choose a device suitable for your case. Experts advise buying a 0.03 amp difavtomat.
What wire cross-section is needed to connect the washing machine?
- Features of connecting the washing machine to the mains
- Choosing a wire to connect a washing machine
- Additional wiring accessories
- DIY washing machine wiring
- Planning and layout
- Tools and consumables
- Socket seat and chasing
- Wire laying works
- Installing the socket
- Checking the quality of work
The choice of an automatic washing machine is a responsible matter, but it is equally important to correctly connect it to the in-house communications. Particular attention should be paid to the electrical part. You need to choose a reliable outlet, install it correctly, choose the right wire cross-section for the washing machine and perform the installation properly. Most often, wiring is done during the overhaul of an apartment, but if necessary, you can lay a new cable just before installing new household appliances.
Planning and layout
Before getting down to business, you need to choose the best place to install the outlet. It should be located in the immediate vicinity of the machine, but the distance to the dashboard must also be taken into account. Do not forget that the farther the shield, the more wire will be required, in addition, the more work on chipping and subsequent sealing of the channel will have to be done.
The place of installation of the socket, as well as the route of the wire, is marked with a marker directly on the wall. When planning a route, one must remember that the wire must run either strictly vertically or strictly horizontally. Violation of this rule can cause an accident, not knowing where the wiring is laid, it is extremely unsuccessful to hammer a nail or tighten a screw.
Having finished the marking, it is worth checking everything again, and at the same time making sure that there is a sufficient amount of wire and its correctly selected section. It is important to understand that high-quality wiring for a washing machine is solid wiring. There should be no connections in the channel, twists are places of potential fire.
Choosing a wire to connect a washing machine
The reliability and durability of electrical wiring directly depends on the quality of its components. This primarily applies to the wire. The main criteria for its selection are as follows:
- number of lived;
- conductor material;
- conductor cross-section.
According to technical regulations, a modern automatic washing machine must be grounded. To do this, it is equipped with a plug with special contacts, therefore, you need a three-core wire and a corresponding socket.
Aluminum and copper wires are on sale. It is not recommended to use aluminum for powering large household appliances, the best choice is copper.
Socket seat and chasing
It is better to start chiseling with a recess for an outlet. An electric drill with an attachment for drilling cylindrical holes seems to be the optimal tool for this. It is only important to choose a crown of a suitable diameter, guided by the parameters of the socket. If there is no such nozzle, you can drill holes over the entire area of the future recess and gently knock down the jumpers with a chisel. Deepening will not be so neat, but the method is quite effective.
Next, they go on to strobing. Ideally, you can use a special tool for this. a wall chaser. It leaves behind a perfectly flat groove; working with it does not require excessive physical effort. In the absence of such, you can do with the same drill. Holes are drilled along the cable laying line with the smallest possible pitch, while the final formation of the groove is performed using a grinder.
Sometimes you can do without dusty work at all, the cable channel will help out. It is enough to fix the box on the wall and lay the wire of the required section inside it. It’s quick and easy, but not always aesthetically pleasing.
DIY washing machine wiring
Even if a major overhaul of the bathroom is not planned, but a new automatic washing machine has been bought, it is worth laying a new cable to the place of its planned installation, the cross-section and other parameters of which meet all the norms and requirements. Of course, you can invite specialists to do this work, but if you have some skills, this is easy to do with your own hands.
Tools and consumables
The list of tools that will be required to lay the wire to the washing machine is individual and directly depends on the material of the walls. In limestone or a thick layer of plaster, you can hammer a channel with a “classic” hammer and chisel; in the case of monolithic reinforced concrete, you cannot do without a grinder. In general, the following should be prepared for work:
- electric drill and drills for concrete;
- grinder with a stone disc;
- sharp assembly knife;
- nippers and round nose pliers;
- several screwdrivers;
- screwdriver indicator.
Wire laying works
Pull the wiring from the shield. It is important not to forget that an additional machine will be installed in it. Before starting laying, you need to outline the connection points of the cores (phase, zero, ground), but you do not need to connect the terminals yet.
Features of connecting the washing machine to the mains
Like any other electrical appliance, a washing machine consumes electricity. over, it belongs to the class of high-power consumers, as a result of which the connection must be performed in strict compliance with a number of rules.
It is strictly forbidden to connect the washing machine:
- to an outlet that is visibly damaged;
- to electrical wiring made with a cable of insufficient cross-section;
- via extension cords or adapters;
- using a tee to a socket with a high power electrical appliance already connected.
To protect the washing machine from possible breakdown, and yourself from a serious accident, you should select a separate outlet for connection, designed to work in high humidity conditions. The connection should be made using a wire of large cross-section, moreover, it should not come out of the nearest junction box, but directly from the panel. Otherwise, when the engine is turned on at maximum speed, the wire insulation may melt, which in turn may cause a fire.
Installing the socket
After the wiring has been laid along its entire length, the socket can be mounted. The sequence of actions is as follows.
- Installation of a socket box. To fix it, use complete fasteners, but it will not be superfluous to additionally “put” it on cold welding or sealant.
- The ends of the wire are inserted into the hole in the socket.
- Unpack the outlet, take out the inside of it.
- The terminals are connected in turn: phase, zero, ground. In this case, you need to ensure that the ends of the wire are not too tight, do not forget that it is quite possible that the outlet will have to be repaired.
- Using standard fasteners, the socket is securely fixed in the socket. Backlash is not allowed, it must “sit” motionless.
- Screw on the plastic cover.