How to connect the motor of an old car?
Correctly connecting the electric motor of the machine is not so easy. But if you know how to do it, then it will not cause problems.
First, we need to find two pairs of outputs. In order to understand where they are, we can use a multimeter (tester). Select one of the winding leads and connect the tester probe to it. With the remaining probe of the multimeter, we will check the other conclusions to find a pair.
Thus, we will find the first pair. The two conclusions that remain form another pair. Now we need to understand where the starting and working windings are. To do this, you need to measure the resistance. Starting resistance will be more.
How to connect a motor to a washing machine (motor)
If you still have a washing machine motor, you can figure out how to use it. For example, you can make a sharpener out of it. If you fix on it a special attachment in the form of a round sharpening stone, then you can sharpen knives, scissors, an ax and other tools.
You can also use an electric motor from a washing machine in construction. For example, when creating a foundation for a future home, you can make a “vibrator” out of it, which will come in handy when the concrete solution shrinks. It can also be used for other purposes. The motor can rotate various attachments and set in motion any mechanisms.
Using your imagination and skills in such matters, you can come up with a wide variety of ways to use an electric motor. And of course, when implementing any option for using this motor, you will need to connect it.
How to connect the electric motor of a modern washing machine?
If you need to connect the electric motor of a modern washing machine to an alternating voltage network of two hundred and twenty volts, then you should take into account the features of this part. Their features are as follows:
- They don’t need a starting winding.
- No starting capacitor required to start.
To start, we need to connect the wires on the engine in the right way. We will not use the two white wires on the left. They are needed to measure the speed of the electric motor. The next in line is the red wire. It goes to the stator winding. There is a brown wire behind it. It is also directed to one of the stator windings. Gray and green wires connected to motor brushes.
In order to present the connection diagram to you more clearly, we have prepared the following diagram:
We will connect one 220 volt wire to one of the winding terminals. Connect one of the brushes to the next one. Connect the second 220 volt wire to the remaining brush of the washing machine motor. So, as shown in the diagram below:
After that, you can turn on the engine to the 220 network and check its performance. If you did everything correctly, you will see how the moving part of the motor rotates and you will hear the noise of its operation. If everything went well, then the engine is ready for use. By the way, with this connection, it moves in one direction. What needs to be done to change the direction of rotation? See the diagram:
As you can see from the schematic display in the figure above, in order to change the direction of rotation, we needed to swap the connections of the electric motor brushes. After reconnecting the engine, check its performance again by connecting it to a 220 volt network.
By the way, in order to make your work easier, we decided to add instructions. Which describes the whole process of connecting the engine from the washing machine to electricity.
The method of connecting a motor from a modern machine in this article is based precisely on the material that is presented in this one. Therefore, we would like to thank the author of this and watch it very carefully:
And so, we have already found a working and starting winding. Now we can connect the motor using the schematic drawing you see next to it. The diagram shows:
- PO. starting winding. It is needed in order to create an initial torque in any direction.
- ОВ. excitation winding. It is also called the working winding. It is needed to create a magnetic field of rotation.
- SB. switch (button) for short-term switching on of the software to the mains in two hundred twenty volts.
If it becomes necessary to change the direction in which the rotation of the motor will be directed, you will need to swap the software pins. With such a change, the direction of rotation will change to the opposite.
When you conduct a test connection and launch the engine, do not forget to take care of your safety and the safety of others. Be sure to secure the motor. This will prevent strong vibrations and unnecessary movements.
We hope that this post helped you cope with connecting the washing machine motor yourself. Keep reading our website and have a nice day.!
Types of electric motors
An electric motor is an electrically powered machine that moves various elements using a drive. Produce asynchronous and synchronous aggregates.
Even from school, it was established that when they approach each other, magnets attract or repel. The first case appears at opposite magnetic poles, the second. at the same ones. The conversation is about stable magnets and the magnetic field constantly organized by them.
Besides the presented ones, there are unstable magnets. Without exception, everyone remembers the example from the textbook: the figure shows a magnet in the shape of an ordinary horseshoe. Between its poles there is a frame made in the shape of a horseshoe with half rings. A current was applied to the frame.
Since the magnet rejects the same names and attracts different poles, an electromagnetic field appears around this frame, which turns it in an upright position. As a result, it is affected by the current opposite to the main case. The modified polarity rotates the frame and returns to the horizontal area. The work of a synchronous motor is based on this belief.
In this circuit, current is applied to the rotor winding, represented by a frame. The source that creates the electromagnetic field is the windings. The stator acts as a magnet. In addition, it is made from windings or from a set of stable magnets.
The rotor speed of such an electric motor is the same as that of the current supplied to the winding terminals, that is, they work simultaneously, which gave the name to the electric motor.
To understand the principle of operation, recall the picture: a frame (but without half rings) is located between the magnetic poles. The magnet is made in the shape of a horseshoe, the ends of which are united.
We begin to slowly twist it around the frame, watching what is happening. Until a certain moment, the frame does not move. Further, at a specific angle of rotation of the magnet, it begins to spin after it with a speed less than the rate of the latter. They do not work simultaneously, so the motors are called asynchronous.
In a real electric motor, a magnet is an electrical winding placed in the grooves of the stator, into which an electric current is supplied. The rotor is considered a frame. In its grooves, there are short-circuited plates. They call it that. short-circuited.
The motor from the washing machine has rather high revolutions, for this reason it is necessary to make a regulator so that it works at different speeds and does not overheat. For this, a regular light intensity relay will work, but a little modification is needed.
We remove the triac with a radiator from the old car. This is the name of an electronically controlled semiconductor device that performs the function of a switch.
Now you need to solder it into the relay circuit instead of the low-power part. If you do not possess such skills, it is preferable to entrust this operation to a specialist. a familiar electronics engineer or computer technician.
In some cases, the engine normally copes with work without a speed controller.
Connecting the engine to the 220 V network
If you needed to connect the electric motor of the machine to a 220 volt network, then you must take into account the characteristic features of this part. Its features are as follows:
- does not need a starting winding;
- no starting capacitor is needed to start.
To start, we need to combine the cable in the motor. We will not use the two white wires on the left side. They are needed to measure the turns of the electric motor. The next one is the red wire. It passes to the stator winding. There is a brown wire behind it. It is also oriented towards one of the stator windings. Gray and green cables are connected to the motor brushes.
In order to show you the connection diagram more clearly, we have created the following diagram:
- Connect a single 220 V cable to one of the winding terminals.
- In the next, we will connect one of the brushes. Connect the 2nd wire 220 V to the brush of the car engine.
After that, you will be able to connect the motor to the 220 network and check its functionality. If you did everything correctly, you will notice how the moving part of the engine is spinning and you will hear the noise of its operation. If everything is normal, then the motor is ready for use. By the way, with this connection, it moves in one direction.
What needs to be done to change the rotation? As you know from the schematic display, in order to change the direction of rotation, we needed to swap the connections of the electric motor brushes. After switching the motor, find out its functionality again by connecting it to the mains.
By the way, to simplify your work, we decided to add a manual that describes the entire process of connecting the engine from the car to electricity.
The method of connecting an engine from a modern machine in this article is based directly on the material used, which is shown in.
It is not so easy to correctly connect the electric motor of the machine. We need a wiring diagram for the motor from the washing machine. However, if you understand how this is done, this will not cause difficulties.
First, we need to find 2 pairs of output. To understand where they are, we can use a multimeter. We select one of the winding leads and connect the tester probe. With the rest of the probe of the multimeter, we examine other conclusions to find a paired.
Thus, we will find the first pair. These 2 conclusions that survived form another pair. Now we need to understand where the starting and working winding is. To do this, you must measure the resistance. The starting part has more resistance.
So, we have already found a working winding. Now we can connect the motor using the drawing.
The diagram shows:
- PO. starting electrical winding. It is necessary in order to form the initial torque in any direction.
- ОВ. excitation winding. It is also called the working winding. It is necessary to form the spinning magnetic field.
- SB. switch (key) for short-term introduction of software to the 220 volt power grid.
If there is a need to change the direction in which the rotation of the motor will be aimed, you will need to swap the software pins. With such a change, the direction of rotation will be reversed.
If you begin to carry out a test connection and start the engine, do not forget to take care of your own safety and the safety of others, fix the electric motor. This will prevent strong vibrations and unnecessary movements.
Differences between electric motors
Outwardly, the motors are difficult to recognize. Their main difference is the rule of work. They also differ in the field of application: synchronous, more complex in design, are used to drive equipment such as pumps, compressors, etc., that is, operating at a constant speed.
With asynchronous ones, with increasing overload, the spinning frequency decreases. They are supplied with a huge number of devices.
Pros of asynchronous motors
The electric motor driving the drum is the heart of the washing machine. The very first versions of the machines were driven by belts that twisted the container with the laundry. However, to date, an asynchronous device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy has been significantly improved.
often in the circuits of washing machines there are asynchronous motors, consisting of a stator, which does not move and is intended simultaneously as a magnetic circuit and a carrier system, and a moving rotor that turns a drum. The induction motor functions due to the interaction of magnetic unstable fields of these structures. Asynchronous motors are divided into two-phase, which are less common, and three-phase.
The pluses of asynchronous devices include:
- uncomplicated system;
- basic maintenance, including bearing replacement;
- periodic lubrication of the electric motor;
- silent work;
- notional low cost.
Cons, of course, there are also:
- insignificant efficiency;
- large scale;
- low power.
These motors tend to have a lower cost.
When using a powerful car motor in a new guise, you must remember about 2 important nuances of its connection:
- such installations are not run through a capacitor;
- no starting winding needed.
Before connecting, we recommend that you deal with the wires of different colors located there on the transfer case:
- 2 white wires are from the generator, we will not need them;
- brown and red usually go to the winding to the stator and rotor;
- gray and green are connected to brushes.
Be prepared for the fact that in different modifications the wires differ in color, but the principle of their connection remains constant. To identify pairs, ring the wires in order: those outgoing to the tachogenerator have a resistance of 60-70 ohms. Push them aside and tape them together so they don’t get in the way. Ring other wires to find a pair.
We connect the engine from the washing machine machine
After we have found the wires we need, it remains to connect them. To do this, do the following.
According to the diagram, you need to connect one end of the stator winding to the rotor brush. For this, it is most convenient to make a jumper and insulate it. In the image, the jumper is highlighted in green.
After that, we are left with two wires: one end of the rotor winding and the wire going to the brush. They are what we need. We connect these two ends to the 220 V network.
If you want to change the rotation of the motor in the other direction, then you just need to throw a jumper on other contacts, change the wires of the rotor brushes in places. Look at the diagram to see how it looks. If you did everything correctly, the motor will start to rotate. If this does not happen, then check the engine for performance and after that draw conclusions.
Connecting the motor of a modern washing machine is quite simple, which cannot be said about old machines. Here the scheme is slightly different.
How to connect the engine from the washing machine to the 220V network
Washing machines, like any other type of equipment, become obsolete and fail over time. Of course, we can put the old washing machine somewhere, or disassemble it for parts. If you took the last path, then you might have an engine from the washing machine, which can do you good service.
A motor from an old washing machine can be adapted in a garage and made into an electric emery. To do this, you need to attach an emery stone to the motor shaft, which will rotate. And you can sharpen various objects about it, from knives to axes and shovels. Agree, the thing is quite necessary in the household. Also, other devices that require rotation can be built from the engine, for example, an industrial mixer or something else.
Dealing with wires
If you look at the block with wires in the front, then usually the first two left wires are the wires of the tachometer, through which the engine speed of the washing machine is regulated. We don’t need them. In the image they are white and have an orange cross crossed out. Next comes the red and brown stator wires. We marked them with red arrows to make it clearer. Following them are two wires to the rotor brushes. gray and green, which are marked with blue arrows. We need all the wires indicated by the arrows to connect.
In different models of washing machines, the wires will differ in color, but the connection principle remains the same. You just need to find the necessary wires by ringing them with a multimeter.
To do this, switch the multimeter to measure resistance. Touch the first wire with one probe, and look for its pair with the second.
A working tachogenerator in a quiet state usually has a resistance of 70 ohms. You will find these wires at once and put them aside.
Just ring the rest of the wires and pair them.
Wiring diagram for the electric motor of a modern washing machine
If you have figured out what to do with the old motor, then the first question that may bother you is how to connect the electric motor from the washing machine to the 220 V network. And just for this question we will help you find the answer in this instruction.
Before proceeding directly to connecting the motor, you must first familiarize yourself with the electrical circuit, on which everything will be clear. Connecting the engine from the washing machine to the 220 Volt network should not take you much time. To begin with, look at the wires that go from the engine, at first it may seem that there are a lot of them, but in fact, if you look at the above diagram, then not all of us are needed. Specifically, we are only interested in the rotor and stator wires.
Connecting the motor of an old washing machine
Connecting the motor of an old washing machine is a little more complicated and will require you to find the necessary windings yourself using a multimeter. To find the wires, ring the motor windings and find a pair. To do this, switch the multimeter to measure resistance, touch the first wire with one end, and find its pair with the second in turn. Write down or remember the resistance of the winding. we need it.
Then, in the same way, find the second pair of wires and fix the resistance. We got two windings with different resistances. Now you need to determine which one is working and which is the launcher. Everything is simple here, the resistance of the working winding should be less than that of the starting winding.
To start an engine of this kind, you will need a button or a starting relay. A button is needed with a non-fixed contact and will do, for example, a button from a doorbell.
Now we connect the motor and the button according to the scheme: But the excitation winding (OV) is directly supplied to 220 V. The same voltage must be applied to the starting winding (PO), only to start the engine for a short time, and turn it off. for this, the button is needed ( SB).
We connect the OV directly to the 220V network, and connect the software to the 220V network via the SB button.
- PO. starting winding. It is intended only for starting the engine and is used at the very beginning until the engine starts to rotate.
- ОВ. excitation winding. This is a working winding that is constantly in operation, and it turns the motor all the time.
- SB. a button with which voltage is applied to the starting winding and after starting the motor turns it off.
After you have made all the connections, it is enough to start the engine from the washing machine. To do this, press the SB button and, as soon as the engine starts to rotate, release it.
In order to reverse (rotation of the motor in the opposite direction), you need to swap the contacts of the PO winding. Thus, the motor will start rotating in the opposite direction.
That’s it, now the motor from the old washing machine can serve you as a new device.
Connection to the power supply network for new generation washing machines is made using a special block with terminals. If you have a collector engine, then this block will contain:
- 2 connections from brushes;
- 2 (and sometimes 3) electrical contacts coming from the stator winding;
- 2 wires connected to the tachometer sensor.
Inside the engine, the connections are located in the dispensing unit.
Before connecting an electric motor from an old washing machine, it is necessary not only to determine its type, but also to find all the available electric wires in the dispensing unit. You should find there 2 white wires that go from the tachogenerator, then find the red and brown wires that go to the stator and rotor, and also find the green and gray wires. they are attached to the graphite brushes. When performing work, please note that the electric motor does not need to start through a capacitor, and the connection does not require a starting winding either.
Next, you need to move the wires that are attached to the tachogenerator, since they are not required to connect the electric motor. The color of the braid of the wires for washing machines from different manufacturers may differ, and in order to determine them correctly, you need to be guided by their resistance. Those wires that are attached to the tachometer will show a resistance of 50-70 ohms. The remaining wires that will participate in connecting the electric motor must be ringed with a multimeter. this will help them find their pair.
Before turning on the electric motor, you will need to fix it on a stable surface. It should be remembered that as soon as you try to connect the electric motor to a 220 W power grid, its shaft will immediately begin its high-speed rotation. For this reason, care must be taken when carrying out commissioning work to avoid injury to hands.
The old Soviet washing machine, like most modern models, has an electric motor with four wires, that is, these are 4 leads coming from the motor. But you can also meet with electric motors, which will have 5, 6 or even 7 pins, although to turn on the electric motor you only need to find wires that are directly connected to the stator and rotor.
Excess wires can be contacts of the control board, with which the operation of the washing machine is adjusted and the washing programs are selected.
You can see the connection made in the wiring diagram shown. Using the electrical circuit, you need to detach the stator winding and rotor brushes, for which you need to find the corresponding contacts on the electric motor and make a jumper between them, called “pinout”, which you should insulate in the future.
On the wiring diagram, the jumper is shown with pink arrows. The remaining 2 contacts, which remain from another brush and the rotor winding, are connected to the mains. Further, the device must be equipped with an on-off lever, and in order to adjust the direction of the shaft rotation side of the electric motor, you need to throw such a jumper to the other 2 contacts.
Modern automatic machine
Most automatic washing machines are equipped with asynchronous electric motors, therefore, as an example, consider its connection.
Three-phase electric motors of asynchronous type are the most common units that can operate even at a voltage of up to 380 V. But to connect them to a single-phase 220 V power grid, you will need to connect a capacitor. it will not only keep voltage drops in the network, but also reduce the power of the electric motor, which will ensure you safety when using it.
To connect, you need an electrical wire with a plug at the end, a capacitor is connected to it. Then pinout is made. for this, a jumper wire is attached to the other side of the capacitor. Next, you need to ring the motor winding with a multimeter to detect contacts with a minimum resistance. Then wires are inserted that will be connected to the power supply, and a capacitor is connected to them.
After turning on the electric motor, if the starting capacitor is fixed correctly, you will see the rotation of the shaft.
If it is required to preserve the operability of the electric motor, but at the same time to regulate the number of its revolutions, then a tachogenerator is connected to the engine. this sensor is found in every model of washing machines. “Hall sensor”. as it is also called, not only controls the number of revolutions of the motor shaft using a special microcircuit. With its help, the washing machine evaluates the weight of the laundry. When the laundry is saturated with water, weight detection allows the sensor to select the desired speed, which is required to spin the drum.
When installed on an electric motor, the tachogenerator has 3 outputs. 2 outputs are needed to connect the power supply, and another 1 output takes readings of pulses.
It is important not to confuse these contacts during installation in order to get the effect you want from the sensor.
Description of different types of electric motors
A modern automatic washing machine, as a rule, has a three-phase electric motor, but the old Soviet counterparts could have a two-speed mode of operation, although they are now very rare. Any electric motor is an apparatus powered by electricity, and it is intended to set in motion various structural elements.
Disassembling the washing machine, you can see in it an electric motor with a tachogenerator, which regulates the number of revolutions made by a rotating shaft, and depending on the type, the electric motor can be brushed or designed without the use of brushes. Different manufacturers of automatic washing machines use certain types of electric motors for different models, which are divided into 3 options.
How to connect a motor to a washing machine?
- Description of different types of electric motors
After completing their due date, automatic washing machines fail and must be replaced, but do not rush to take out old equipment in the trash. Many washing machines have an electric motor in good condition, which, if desired, and at least minimal skills in working with electrical engineering, can be used not only for various household needs, but also for performing small industrial work. The electric motor from the washing machine has the ability to connect to a 220 W power supply, and its speed develops to very impressive indicators. 10-11,000 revolutions per minute.
The electric motor can be connected to any equipment, for example, make a knife sharpening device, a mixer for mixing concrete solution, build a small home lathe or grinder, a grinder, make a powerful fan or heat gun to heat a garage or summer cottage, create a grinder for materials different factions and so on. Craftsmen make even an electric generator from an old motor. The main thing is your desire and skill.
Designs and applications can be of any, but a used electric motor from a washing machine will help to set them in motion, which will greatly facilitate your manual labor and become a good economic aid.
Most often, asynchronous electric motors are three-phase, but among them, old models of washing machines sometimes come across two-phase options. Asynchronous electric motors are used in 90% of household appliances, since their design is reliable and inexpensive in terms of cost. The basic principle of operation of such an electric motor is the combined action of the stator magnetic field and the fluxes that are generated by this field in the rotor. The rotation of the electric motor occurs when the frequency difference arising during the rotation of magnetic fields.
Asynchronous electric motors are reliable and durable, their maintenance consists of regular lubrication of the internal bearing mechanism. However, such an electric motor has a large weight and bulky dimensions, which is not always convenient during its use.
The efficiency of asynchronous electric motors is not the greatest, therefore they are used for household models of medium-power washing machines.
This type of electric motors has become a modern modification, which has come to replace large asynchronous models with low efficiency. In contrast to them, the collector electric motor has the ability to work from both direct and alternating voltage of electric current. The electric motor consists of a fixed stator and a movable rotor. The stator generates energy, and the rotor transfers it to the rotating shaft, which is an integral part of it. The shaft has a collector, thanks to which electricity is supplied to the rotor winding.
Such an electric motor is capable of performing rotation in any desired direction, that is, to the right or to the left, it is only necessary to change its polarity when connecting the brushes on the stator winding. The collector type of an electric motor is characterized not only by a high speed of its rotation, but also by the possibility of a smooth change in the speed mode, which is regulated by changing the voltage. The collector motor has a compact size, in addition, it is characterized by a large starting torque.
This electric motor requires frequent replacement of brushes and cleaning of the collector, which is carried out as a result of regular preventive inspections of this type of unit. The brush assembly is considered to be the weakest point in such electric motors. And although the period of operation of the brushes is from 8 to 10 years, all this time during operation, the brushes are grinded, due to which fine coal dust settles on all other parts of the electric motor.
Today, the most modern type of electric motor, with compact dimensions and a high level of efficiency at high power, is the inverter type. It, like other electric motors, has a stator and a rotor, but the number of connections between them is minimal. Since there are no elements inside the electric motor that wear out quickly during operation, this allows the unit to work without interruptions for quite a long time, without creating noise and vibrations. Inverter electric motors are in expensive washing machines, since the cost of such an electric motor is much higher than its counterparts.
Analyzing the properties of all 3 types of electric motors, we can conclude that the asynchronous option is the simplest in design, but it has a low level of efficiency. The collector type of the electric motor is good in that it makes it possible to adjust the rotation speed.
And an inverter-type electric motor is able to work without the use of brushes and other parts in its structure, which are used in other types of electric motors.
Old-style washing machines most often have an asynchronous type of electric motor, which has 2 windings. working and starting. The difference between them is that for the starting winding, the data of resistance indicators during measurements will be higher than for the working one. If, when disassembling the electric motor, you see contacts from both of these windings, and they are in good condition, then it will be easy to connect such an electric motor. This can be done using a capacitor designed for a voltage value equal to 450 to 600 V. The capacitance of the capacitor must be at least 8 μF.
When connecting an electric motor, pairs of contacts are found from the working and starting windings, and then they are connected to the capacitor. If, during a test run, the electric motor rotates in the wrong direction, which you need, you need to swap the connection contacts at the starting winding.
Sometimes it is not possible to start an electric motor from an old automatic washing machine, and the reasons for this are both mechanical and electrical.
The reasons for the difficulties in starting an electric motor can manifest themselves as follows.
- When turned on, the electric motor heats up, but the shaft does not rotate. If you try to rotate the shaft by hand, you can hear the grinding of metal parts. This sound indicates that the electric motor has a damaged bearing mechanism and needs to be removed and replaced.
- Sometimes the rotation of the shaft of an electric motor can be difficult if any foreign objects have accumulated in the gap between the stator and the rotor, which must be removed and tried to start again.
- Ringing out the entire electrical circuit with a multimeter will help identify the presence of an open. For electric motors of the collector type, the starting problem may lie in the worn out brushes, as a result of which they cannot tightly adjoin the collector and energy is not generated.
Sometimes when starting an electric motor from modern models of washing machines, they try to determine the starting winding, but new generations of electric motors do not have it, and such a motor is started without the use of a capacitor.
You can find out about a simple way to connect the washing machine motor without appliances below.
Washing machine motor, connection
A neighbor at the entrance put a washing machine on the staircase for further removal to the trash, as a repairman told him, a kirdyk came to the motor. Not only Samodelkin, not when in life, will pass by the thrown out unit without taking it for parts or at least not looking inside at the contents. I am also sick with the same, I decided to save my neighbor from hard physical work, taking the unit to the trash can and took it for spare parts to my village.
Pictured: One of the most useful parts of the inside of a washing machine.
Everything was disassembled for useful bells and whistles and it’s time to check the condition of the engine.
Point 1. Checking the motor.
To check the motor and upgrade the lighting dimmer, we need tools.
Electrician’s side cutters
Inside there was such a collector universal motor MCA 52 \ 64.148 \ KT11 390W. 13000 RPM.
For a simple start of the motor, we only need two orange, blue and purple wires, the rest can be bitten off or isolated for future homemade products.
According to this scheme, you need to connect the motor.
You can check the operation of the motor, everything works (as in most cases it does), only the bearings should be replaced.
This is how the repair specialists diagnose, the installation work.
Clause 2. Reverse.
This type of motor can be reversed, which is what the washing machine does during washing, for this you need to change the connection of the brush from one winding to another, only do this after a complete stop and the motor is de-energized.
Scheme. Reverse with toggle switch.
Point 3. Regulation of turns by the light dimmer.
It is also possible to adjust the rpm by the decrease method. increasing the current, for example, using a wire rheostat of the required power or using a triac with a PWM controller.
As the simplest and most affordable, this is a dimmer for lighting (photo below), only before the first connection you need to look at what maximum current the regulator is designed for, we need a tenfold overlap of the rated motor power, because the starting current of our motor jumps from 8-10A and higher, even without load.
The cheapest dimmer.
We connect the regulator (Dimmer) to the break of one wire of the motor power supply, plug it in and turn the regulator knob, the motor should start rotating, and the speed should correspond to the position of the regulator knob.
If, when connected to the network, the motor in any of the regulator positions is standing or is constantly working without changing the speed, then the part (triac) turned out to be punctured (burned out), provided that the regulator itself was initially serviceable.
Now we need to make a new case for Dimmer, the old one has become small for him. But that is another story.